Resource Library

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An African woman with a disability and her personal assistant walking.

Using Personal Assistance Services Abroad

Whether at home or abroad, personal assistance services (PAS) provide a way for some people with disabilities to fully participate in all areas of community living. Sometimes called a personal care attendant (PCA), a personal assistant (PA) assists a person with a disability to do the things she would do for herself if she did not have a disability or had other ways to accomplish the task without human assistance. This could involve:

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Reading a tactile map of building floor plan

Advising Blind and Low Vision Exchange Participants

People who meet the definition of legal blindness, meaning that they possess 20/200 vision or less in the best eye, will have varying levels of eyesight. Measuring or inquiring about someone's visual acuity will not give an accurate idea of the level of assistance that they require. Since there is so much variation in the type and quality of education that any given blind or visually impaired individual might have received, it is hard to make generalizations about the supports that they might need without consulting them. 

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African-American wheelchair user strolling with his exchange group in Japan

Advising Exchange Participants with Physical Disabilities

People with physical disabilities can include individuals who are amputees, of short stature or had polio, or who have cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, paraplegia, quadriplegia, spina bifida, and other disabilities.

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College campus skyline

Admissions Tests At-a-Glance

As part of the application process, most undergraduate and graduate programs require one or more U.S. standardized test scores. Your test scores, academic record, and other factors are used to predict how well you will do as a university student. Professional visitor programs may request admission test scores as well. 

Common admissions tests for entering an academic or professional program include:

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Hands typing on a computer keyboard

English Proficiency Tests At-a-Glance

Being able to communicate in English is a basic requirement for successful study in the United States. If English is not your native language, U.S. colleges and universities, as well as some professional visitor programs, will ask you to take an English language proficiency test before admission to determine your English language ability and appropriate placement level. 

Common English language proficiency tests for entering an academic or professional program include:

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Student wearing a hearing aid writing in a classroom with other students.

English Testing for High School Students with Disabilities

Before they arrive in the U.S. for a life-changing cultural immersion experience, prospective high school exchange students from around the world are expected to demonstrate their level of English ability, usually by taking a standardized test. Whichever test you use to assess your applicants, learn how to adapt it to fairly and accurately measure the skills of students with disabilities.

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Smiling women at a disability rights training in Tanzania

Eight Ways DPOs Can Mainstream Gender

Achieving equality for people with disabilities depends on an empowered civil society that actively demands rights, transparency, and accountability from the government. For Disabled Peoples Organizations (DPOs) to be most effective in their advocacy, they must include the diversity of the disability community, and tap into the power of disabled women leaders.

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Stack of test books and dictionaries

Disability Accommodations for the TOEFL, GRE and Other ETS Tests

Do you plan to take the TOEFL or GRE test? You may be eligible to receive disability-related accommodations through the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which administers these and other tests. But start soon. All requests for testing accommodations must be reviewed and approved by ETS before you can schedule your test!

The information on this page will give you a general idea of what to expect. For complete details, instructions, and requirements, visit ETS' Information for Test Takers with Disabilities under Related Links.

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Host friends

Finding Accessible Host Families

With the right information and community resources, placing participants with disabilities in homes with local families can be meaningful and fulfilling for all involved. If host families are an integral part of an exchange program, U.S. organizations must try to provide the same opportunity for participants with disabilities, or offer an equivalent alternative that achieves the same benefit or result.

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Two young professional women in Jordan

The Role of Peer Support and Mental Health Abroad

Peer support is often underutilized but can be an effective safety net for many students learning to adjust and adapt to a new culture when studying abroad. Increasingly, study abroad programs are looking at ways to build in support systems and safety nets for all students, including training peers to support students with mental health conditions. Some programs focus on just 2 – 3 hours of a peer support curriculum while others offer 6-week programs that meet once per week prior to going abroad.

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Annie who is hard of hearing volunteered in Ghana

Deaf & Hard of Hearing Participants in International Exchange

The experience of being in a completely new environment, disability or not, can be very challenging. As a Deaf or Hard of Hearing person, these new environments may present communication challenges that you haven’t experienced before.

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College students chat or study from books.

Standardized Tests and People with Disabilities

Applying to study, learn English, or get professional experience in the U.S.? You may be required to provide test scores as part of your application. Find out what kinds of disability-accommodations you may be able to receive when you take the TOEFL, SAT, GRE, and other tests.

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Wheelchair user on a lift from a bus

Disability Accommodations in International Contexts

What does the word, accommodations, mean to you as a person with a disability in the U.S.? What types of services and supports are generally recognized as accommodations for a particular disability?

While programs in some countries require a formal documentation process in order to provide disability accommodations according to local and/or national laws, programs in other countries might rely on your informal conversation with the program staff to find out about what you need and why.

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African American man in a manual wheelchair strolls along with others in Japan

What To Do When Insurance Doesn't Cover It

Participants who receive funding for a personal assistant through Medicaid or other government support are not able to use that funding once outside their home country. Travel insurance companies typically do not pay for personal assistants for daily care overseas or durable medical equipment that is not related to a first occurrence of an illness or injury overseas.

Since these costs are unlikely to be covered for people with existing needs, exchange programs or institutions should work with a participant to cover the costs.

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A woman in a red suitcoat listens intently to another woman talking

Health Insurance: 8 Steps for Exchange Advisors to Take

By removing health insurance barriers, you can support diverse students to safely participate in your international exchange programs.With these options in place, it shouldn’t prevent qualified individuals from participating in exchanges and alleviate some of the difficult health cost issues that exchange staff and students need to deal with during the program.

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